The cost of motor-vehicle crashes that involves people in the course of their work is included in both classes, but the duplication is eliminated from the total. The duplication in 2015 amounted to $28.7 billion and consists of $6.9 billion in wage and productivity losses, $2.5 billion in medical expenses, $15.0 billion in administrative expenses, $3.6 billion in vehicle damage and $0.7 billion in employer uninsured costs.