The occurrence in a sequence of events that produces unintended injury, death, or property damage. Accident refers to the event, not to the result of the event (see preventable injury). The term “accident” has largely been replaced in the public health community with the term “incident.” (see preventable deaths and injuries)
Includes the administrative cost of public and private insurance, as well as police and legal costs. Private insurance administrative costs are the difference between premiums paid to insurance companies and claims paid out by them. It is their cost of doing business and a part of the cost total. Claims paid by insurance companies are not identified separately, as every claim is compensation for losses such as wages, medical expenses, property damage, etc.
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects. Applies when a person, or part of a person’s body is squeezed, pinched, compressed, or crushed in operating equipment, between other meshing or shifting objects, between two stationary objects, or in wire or rope.
Includes deaths from unintentional ingestion or inhalation of food or other objects resulting in the obstruction of respiratory passages.
Confidence intervals are used to express the degree of uncertainty associated with an estimate. A confidence interval reflects the probability that the actual number will fall within a specified range. The wider the confidence interval/range, the less certain the estimate. For example, a 90% confidence interval of 3,100 to 3,500 indicates that there is a 90% likelihood that the actual count will fall within this range.
COSTS – COMPREHENSIVE
Represents the combination of economic costs and wage risk premiums (also referred to as lost quality of life). Because wage risk premiums do not represent real income not received or expenses incurred, it is not included in the total economic cost figure. The comprehensive cost estimate can be used in cost-benefit analysis because the comprehensive cost estimate represents the maximum amount society should spend to prevent a statistical death or injury.
COSTS – ECONOMIC
Represents the cost of fatal and nonfatal preventable injuries incurred by society and includes income not received or expenses incurred. The economic cost estimate can be compared to other economic measures such as gross domestic product, per capita income, or personal consumption expenditures.
CUT AND PIERCE
Injury resulting from an incision, slash, perforation, or puncture by a pointed or sharp instrument, weapon, or object. This category does not include injury from being struck by or against a blunt object (such as the side of a nightstand) or bite wounds; these injuries fall in the category “struck by/against.”
DAFW (DAYS AWAY FROM WORK CASES)
Cases which result in days away from work (beyond the day of injury or onset of illness). The number of days away from work for these cases is determined according to the number of calendar days (not workdays) that an employee was unable to work, even if the employee was not scheduled to work those days. The day on which the employee was injured or became ill is not counted. These cases may also include days of job transfer or restricted work activity in addition to days away from work. It indicates the frequency of injuries and illnesses that resulted in days away from work. Details regarding recordability of nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses can be found here: https://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/entry-faq. DAFW cases can also be expressed as a rate. The incident rate calculation is: (N/EH) x 200,000, where N = number of injuries and illnesses; EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and 200,000 = base for 100 equivalent full-time workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year). When the rate reflects a base of 10,000 equivalent full-time workers, 20,000,000 is used instead of 200,000.
DART (DAYS AWAY, RESTRICTED, OR TRANSFERRED CASES)
Cases which involve days away from work beyond the day of injury or onset of illness, days of job transfer or restricted work activity, or both. DART is comprised of two types of cases: DAFW and DJTR. Details regarding recordability of nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses can be found here: https://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/entry-faq. DART provide insight into the severity of injuries and their impact on a worker’s ability to work. DART cases can also be expressed as a rate. The incident rate calculation is: (N/EH) x 200,000, where N = number of injuries and illnesses; EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and 200,000 = base for 100 equivalent full-time workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year). When the rate reflects a base of 10,000 equivalent full-time workers, 20,000,000 is used instead of 200,000.
DEATH FROM INCIDENT
A death that occurs within one year of the incident.
An injury causing death, permanent disability, or any degree of temporary total disability beyond the day of the injury. Starting with the 2012 Edition of Injury Facts, the definition of disabling injury was replaced by medically consulted injury for all non-fatal injury estimates.
For the purposes of Injury Facts, disaster events are preventable injury events that result in five or more deaths. Disaster events include natural disasters like severe weather and fires as well as transportation events. Intentional events like terrorism or mass shootings are not included.
DJTR (DAYS OF JOB TRANSFER OR RESTRICTION CASES)
Cases which result only in job transfer or restricted work activity. This occurs when, as the result of a work-related injury or illness, either an employer keeps, or healthcare professional recommends keeping an employee from doing the routine functions of their job or from working the full workday that the employee would have been scheduled to work before the injury or illness occurred. This may include the following instances:
- An employee is assigned to another job temporarily.
- An employee works at a permanent job less than full time.
- An employee works at a permanently assigned job but is unable to perform all duties normally connected with it.
- The day on which the injury or illness occurred is not counted as a day of job transfer or restriction. Workers who continue working after incurring an injury or illness in their regularly scheduled shift but produce fewer goods or services are not considered to be in restricted activity status. They must be restricted from performing their routine work functions to be counted in this category.
- Details regarding recordability of nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses can be found here: https://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/entry-faq.
DJTR can also be expressed as a rate. The incident rate calculation is: (N/EH) x 200,000, where N = number of injuries and illnesses; EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and 200,000 = base for 100 equivalent full-time workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year). When the rate reflects a base of 10,000 equivalent full-time workers, 20,000,000 is used instead of 200,000.
Includes non-transport-related drownings such as those resulting from swimming, playing in the water, or falling in. Excludes drownings in floods and other cataclysms, which are classified to the cataclysm, and boating-related drownings.
EMPLOYERS UNINSURED COSTS
This is an estimate of uninsured costs incurred by employers that represents the dollar value of time lost by uninjured workers. It includes time spent investigating and reporting injuries, administering first aid, hiring and training replacement workers, and the extra cost of overtime for uninjured workers.
Exponential smoothing models iteratively forecast future values of a time series of values from weighted averages of past values of the series. The model computes the next level or smoothed value from a weighted average of the last actual value and the last level value. The method is exponential because the value of each level is influenced by every preceding actual value to an exponentially decreasing degree—more recent values are given greater weight.
Includes deaths from falls from one level to another or on the same level. Excludes falls in or from transport vehicles, or while boarding or alighting from them.
An incident that results in one or more deaths within one year of the incident.
Includes losses from both structure fires and non-structure fires, such as vehicles, outside storage, crops and timber.
FIRE, FLAMES OR SMOKE
Includes deaths from exposure to fire, flames, or smoke, and from injuries in fires such as falls and struck by falling objects. Excludes burns from hot objects or liquids.
A dwelling and its premises within the property lines. Includes single family dwellings and apartment houses, duplex dwellings, boarding and rooming houses, and seasonal cottages. Excluded are barracks, dormitories and resident institutions.
The preferred term for “accident” in the public health community. It refers to the occurrence in a sequence of events that produces unintended injury, death or property damage. Incident refers to the event, not the result of the event (see preventable deaths and injuries).
Physical harm or damage to the body resulting from an exchange, usually acute, of mechanical, chemical, thermal or other environmental energy that exceeds the body’s tolerance.
Includes deaths from hanging and strangulation, and suffocation in enclosed or confined spaces; cave-ins; or by bed clothes, plastic bags, or similar materials.
Doctor fees, hospital charges, the cost of medicines, future medical costs, and ambulance, helicopter and other emergency medical services are included.
MEDICALLY CONSULTED INJURY
An injury serious enough that a medical professional was consulted. For the motor vehicle, home and public venues, the National Safety Council uses the medically consulted injury estimates from the National Health Interview Survey. The Council uses the total recordable case estimate, using OSHA’s definition, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to estimate the number of workplace injuries. Because the BLS estimate excludes self-employed, unpaid family workers and federal government employees, the Council extrapolates the BLS estimate to reflect the total worker population.
Any mechanically or electrically powered device not operated on rails, upon which or by which any person or property may be transported upon a land highway. The load on a motor vehicle or trailer attached to it is considered part of the vehicle. Tractors and motorized machinery are included while self-propelled in transit or used for transportation. Non-motor vehicle is any road vehicle other than a motor vehicle, such as a bicycle or animal-drawn vehicle. Coaster wagon, child’s sled, child’s tricycle, child’s carriage and similar means of transportation are not included; persons using these are considered pedestrians.
Includes the value of damage to vehicles from motor-vehicle crashes. The cost of normal wear and tear to vehicles is not included.
An unstable situation that includes at least one harmful event (injury or property damage) involving a motor vehicle in transport (in motion, in readiness for motion or on a roadway but not parked in a designated parking area) that does not result from a discharge of a firearm or explosive device and does not directly result from a cataclysm. [see Committee on Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident Classification. (1997). Manual on Classification of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents, ANSI D16.1-1996. Itasca IL: National Safety Council.]
Injury to a driver or passenger of a motor vehicle caused by a collision, rollover, crash or some other event involving another vehicle, an object, or a pedestrian. This category includes occupants of cars, pickup trucks, vans, heavy transport vehicles, buses, and SUVs. Injuries to occupants of other types of vehicles such as ATVs, snowmobiles, and go-carts fall in the category of “other transport.”
MOTOR-VEHICLE TRAFFIC INCIDENT
A motor-vehicle incident that occurs on a trafficway, any part of which is open to the use of the public for the purposes of vehicular traffic. A motor-vehicle non-traffic incident is any motor-vehicle incident that occurs entirely in any place other than a trafficway.
Injury to a driver or passenger of a motorcycle resulting from a collision, loss of control, crash, or some other event involving a vehicle, object, or pedestrian. This category includes drivers or passengers of motorcycles (classic style), sidecars, mopeds, motorized bicycles, and motor-powered scooters.
NATURAL HEAT OR COLD
Includes deaths resulting from exposure to excessive natural heat and cold (e.g., extreme weather conditions).
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is a United States government agency. It is part of the Executive Branch and falls under the Department of Transportation (DOT). Among its duties, NHTSA writes and enforces Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, can issue vehicle recalls, conducts research and maintains the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a worldwide reference for individuals and organizations involved in traffic safety, including the National Safety Council.
Injury deaths from non-collisions in which the first injury or damage-producing event was an overturn, jackknife or other type of non-collision.
A motor vehicle non-traffic incident is any motor vehicle incident that occurs entirely in any place other than a traffic way.
NONFATAL INJURY INCIDENT
An incident in which at least one person is injured and no injury results in death.
Any abnormal condition or disorder caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses or diseases caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion or direct contact.
Any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, amputation, etc., that results from a work incident or from a single, instantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Opioids encompass both prescription and illegal painkillers and include: heroin, natural and synthetic opioids (such as oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone), methadone, and other synthetic opioids (such as fentanyl, fentanyl analogs, and tramadol).
OTHER RECORDABLE CASES
Cases which are recordable injuries or illnesses under OSHA recordkeeping guidelines but do not result in any days away from work, nor a job transfer or restriction, beyond the day of the injury or onset of illness. Other recordable cases can also be expressed as a rate. The incident rate calculation is: (N/EH) x 200,000, where N = number of injuries and illnesses; EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and 200,000 = base for 100 equivalent full-time workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year). When the rate reflects a base of 10,000 equivalent full-time workers, 20,000,000 is used instead of 200,000.
Injury to a person boarding, alighting, or riding in or on all other transport vehicles involved in a collision or other event with another vehicle, pedestrian, or animal not included in Motor- vehicle occupant or Motorcyclist. It includes railway, water, air, space, animal and animal-drawn conveyances (e.g., horseback riding), ATVs, battery-powered carts, ski lifts, and other cable cars not on rails.
Working the body or a body part too hard, causing damage to muscle, tendon, ligament, cartilage, joint, or peripheral nerve (e.g., common cause of strains, sprains, and twisted ankles). This category includes overexertion from lifting, pushing, or pulling or from excessive force.
A vehicle propelled by human power and operated solely by pedals; excludes mopeds.
Any person involved in a motor-vehicle incident who is not in or upon a motor vehicle or non-motor vehicle. Includes persons injured while using a coaster wagon, child’s tricycle, roller skates, etc. Excludes persons boarding, alighting, jumping or falling from a motor vehicle in transport who are considered occupants of the vehicle.
PERMANENT DISABILITY (OR PERMANENT IMPAIRMENT)
Any degree of permanent nonfatal injury. It includes any injury that results in the partial or complete loss of use of any part of the body or in any permanent impairment of functions of the body or a part thereof.
The number of miles traveled by an individual person, across different modes of travel. For example, one person walking one mile is one person-mile. Likewise, one vehicle with four passengers traveling one mile is equal to four person-miles.
Includes deaths from drugs, medicines, other solid and liquid substances, and gases and vapors. Excludes poisonings from spoiled foods, Salmonella, etc., which are classified as disease deaths.
PREVENTABLE DEATHS AND INJURIES
Incidents that some people refer to as “accidents,” while others in the public health community use the more technical term “unintentional deaths and injuries.” Preventable deaths and injuries do not include natural causes of death, like illnesses, or intentional events, like homicides or suicides. The National Safety Council uses the term “preventable incidents” instead of “accidents” to remind us that these deaths can be eliminated.
PROPERTY DAMAGE INCIDENT
An incident that results in property damage where no person is injured.
Any incident other than motor vehicle that occurs in the public use of any premises. Includes deaths in recreation (swimming, hunting, etc.), in transportation (except motor vehicle), in public buildings, etc., and from widespread natural disasters, even though some may have happened on home premises. Excludes incidents to people in the course of gainful employment.
This is an estimate of the emergency services primarily paid by state and local governments including: police, fire, emergency medical, victim assistance, coroner services, and incident management.
SOURCE OF INJURY
The principal object, such as a tool, machine or equipment involved in the incident and is usually the object inflicting injury or property damage. Also called agency or agent.
STRUCK BY OR AGAINST
Includes death resulting from a strike by or against an object or other person.
TEMPORARY TOTAL DISABILITY
An injury that does not result in death or permanent disability but renders the injured person unable to perform regular duties or activities on one or more full calendar days after the day of the injury.
Includes all work-related deaths and illnesses and those work-related injuries that result in loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, or transfer to another job, or require medical treatment other than first aid.
TRI (TOTAL RECORDABLE INCIDENT CASES)
Measures the number of work-related injuries and illnesses, based on OSHA reporting guidelines. Details regarding recordability of nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses can be found here: https://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/entry-faq. Total recordable incidents indicates both minor and major injuries and illnesses that required medical treatment or resulted in lost workdays. TRI cases can also be expressed as a rate. The incident rate calculation is: (N/EH) x 200,000, where N = number of injuries and illnesses; EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and 200,000 = base for 100 equivalent full-time workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year).
TRIR (TOTAL RECORDABLE INCIDENT RATE)
Measures the rate of work-related injuries and illnesses, based on OSHA reporting guidelines. Incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers. The incident rate calculation is: (N/EH) x 200,000, where N = number of injuries and illnesses; EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and 200,000 = base for 100 equivalent full-time workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year). Details regarding recordability of nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses can be found here: https://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/entry-faq. Total recordable incidents indicates both minor and major injuries and illnesses that required medical treatment or resulted in lost workdays.
UNINTENTIONAL DEATH AND INJURY
The term for accidental death and injury in the public health community. It refers to the result of an incident. The National Safety Council also uses the term “preventable injury.”
WAGE AND PRODUCTIVITY LOSSES
A person’s contribution to the wealth of the nation usually is measured in terms of wages and household production. The total wages and fringe benefits, together with an estimate of the replacement-cost value of household services, provides an estimate of this lost productivity. Also included is travel delay for motor-vehicle incidents.
WAGE RISK PREMIUM
Quantifies the tradeoff between worker wages and risk of injury. Controlling for other aspects of the job and worker characteristic, wage risk premium is the additional pay workers receive for bearing greater risk. This tradeoff rate, also known as the value of a statistical life, is the cost component that changes economic cost estimates into comprehensive cost estimates.
The total number of hours worked by all employees. They are usually compiled for various levels, such as an establishment, a company or an industry. A work hour is the equivalent of one employee working one hour.
WORK INJURIES (INCLUDING OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESSES)
Injuries that arise out of and in the course of gainful employment regardless of where the accident or exposure occurs. Excluded are work injuries to private household workers and injuries occurring in connection with farm chores that are classified as home injuries.
The cost of motor-vehicle crashes that involves people in the course of their work is included in both classes, but the duplication is eliminated from the total. The duplication in 2015 amounted to $28.7 billion and consists of $6.9 billion in wage and productivity losses, $2.5 billion in medical expenses, $15.0 billion in administrative expenses, $3.6 billion in vehicle damage and $0.7 billion in employer uninsured costs.
Persons gainfully employed, including owners, managers, other paid employees, the self-employed and unpaid family workers, but excluding private household workers.