Being an attentive and alert driver can help prevent crashes that lead to unintentional injury and death. With the rapid adoption of smartphones in the United States, distracted driving has become a hot topic in traffic safety. While cell phones and navigation devices often are the culprit when it comes to distracted driving, conventional distractions such as interacting with passengers and eating also contribute to crashes. Distracting tasks can affect drivers in different ways and can be categorized as visual, manual, and cognitive distraction.
The National Safety Council (NSC) analysis of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data finds that 3,142 people died in distraction-affected crashes in 2019. This is an increase of 10% from 2,858 deaths in 2018. See Data Details to understand the data limitations and potential underestimation of the number of distraction-affected crashes.
Source: NSC analysis of NHTSA Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data.
How Common is Driver Cell Phone Use?
Over the last eight years, the prevalence of drivers using hand-held cell phones at any given daylight moment has decreased from 5.2% of drivers in 2012 to 2.9% in 2019. These figures are from the National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) conducted by NHTSA, which is the only national estimate of driver cell phone use based on driver observations. NHTSA also estimates that 8.8% of drivers were using some type of phone, either hand-held or hands-free, at any typical daylight moment in 2019.
The percent of drivers manipulating hand-held electronic devices has increased 1,300%, from 0.2% in 2005 to 2.9% in 2019. Among other activities, this observation includes text messaging as well as manipulating devices such as MP3 players. Drivers observed with visible headsets remains low at 0.4% in 2019.
- Data Table
Source: NHTSA. (2013 – 2021). Driver Electronic Device Use in 2011 through 2019: Traffic Safety Facts Research Notes.
This graph shows that the total number of fatal distraction-affected crashes increased for the first time in four years. Fatal crashes increased 9% from 2,645 in 2018 to 2,895 in 2019. A fatal crash is one that results in one or more fatalities. The percent of fatal distraction-affected crashes involving cell phone use in 2019 was 13.4% compared to 13.5% in 2018.
- Data Table
Source: Distracted Driving 2015 through 2019: Traffic Safety Facts Research Notes.
Distraction-affected injury and property damage-only crashes from 2011 through 2019 are illustrated in the next chart. Distraction-affected injury crashes numbered 260,000 in 2011, increasing over the next three years to 297,000 in 2014 and falling back to 265,000 in 2015. Although not comparable because of estimate procedure changes, in 2019 distraction-affected injury crashes totaled 287,000.
- Data Table
Source: NSC analysis of NHTSA Crash Report Sampling System (CRSS) data and NHTSA (2017 – 2019). Distracted Driving 2015 through 2019: Traffic Safety Facts Research Notes.
* PDO: Property Damage-Only Crashes.
The CRSS replaced the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) General Estimates System (GES) in 2016 and has a different sample design. Thus, the 2016 – 2019 estimates are not comparable to 2015 and earlier year estimates.